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Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. In the late 19th century, most of Europe's vineyards excluding some of the driest in the south were devastated by the infestation, leading to widespread vine deaths and eventual replanting.
Grafting is done in every wine-producing region in the world except in Argentina , the Canary Islands and Chile —the only places not yet exposed to the insect.
In the context of wine production, terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used, elevation and shape of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, climate and seasonal conditions, and the local yeast cultures.
Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. Such producers try to minimize differences in sources of grapes through production techniques such as micro-oxygenation , tannin filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin-film evaporation, and spinning cones.
Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. European wines tend to be classified by region e.
Bordeaux , Rioja and Chianti , while non-European wines are most often classified by grape e. Pinot noir and Merlot.
Market recognition of particular regions has recently been leading to their increased prominence on non-European wine labels. Some blended wine names are marketing terms whose use is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws.
Commercial use of the term Meritage is allowed only via licensing agreements with the Meritage Association. New World wines —those made outside the traditional wine regions of Europe—are usually classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin, although there have been unofficial attempts to classify them by quality.
According to Canadian Food and Drug Regulations, wine in Canada is an alcoholic beverage that is produced by the complete or partial alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, grape must, products derived solely from fresh grapes, or any combination of them.
There are many materials added during the course of the manufacture, such as yeast, concentrated grape juice, dextrose, fructose, glucose or glucose solids, invert sugar, sugar, or aqueous solutions.
Calcium sulphate in such quantity that the content of soluble sulphates in the finished wine shall not exceed 0. Calcium carbonate in such quantity that the content of tartaric acid in the finished wine shall not be less than 0.
Also, sulphurous acid, including salts thereof, in such quantity that its content in the finished wine shall not exceed 70 parts per million in the free state, or parts per million in the combined state, calculated as sulphur dioxide.
Caramel, amylase and pectinase at a maximum level of use consistent with good manufacturing practice.
Brandy, fruit spirit or alcohol derived from the alcoholic fermentation of a food source distilled to not less than 94 per cent alcohol by volume.
Prior to final filtration may be treated with a strongly acid cation exchange resin in the sodium ion form, or a weakly basic anion exchange resin in the hydroxyl ion form.
Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Climate's impact on the character of a wine can be significant enough to cause different vintages from the same vineyard to vary dramatically in flavor and quality.
Superior vintages from reputable producers and regions will often command much higher prices than their average ones. Some vintage wines e.
Brunello , are only made in better-than-average years. For consistency, non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage, which helps wine-makers sustain a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years.
Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Wines contain many chemical compounds similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices.
The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine.
Dry wine , for example, has only a small amount of residual sugar. Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving, while others recommend drinking it immediately.
Decanting the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing is a controversial subject among wine enthusiasts.
In addition to aeration, decanting with a filter allows the removal of bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles, but aeration may benefit younger wines.
During aeration, a younger wine's exposure to air often "relaxes" the drink, making it smoother and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor.
Older wines generally fade lose their character and flavor intensity with extended aeration. Wine may be tasted as soon as the bottle is opened to determine how long it should be aerated, if at all.
Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine-making.
Typical intentional flavor elements in wine—chocolate, vanilla, or coffee—are those imparted by aging in oak casks rather than the grape itself.
Vertical and horizontal tasting involves a range of vintages within the same grape and vineyard, or the latter in which there is one vintage from multiple vineyards.
Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds released into the air. Many drinkers prefer to chill red wines that are already highly aromatic, like Chinon and Beaujolais.
The ideal temperature for serving a particular wine is a matter of debate by wine enthusiasts and sommeliers, but some broad guidelines have emerged that will generally enhance the experience of tasting certain common wines.
Light red wines drunk young should also be brought to the table at this temperature, where they will quickly rise a few degrees.
Particular selections have higher value, such as "Verticals", in which a range of vintages of a specific grape and vineyard, are offered. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux and Burgundy ; cult wines from Europe and elsewhere; and vintage port.
Characteristics of highly collectible wines include:. Investment in fine wine has attracted those who take advantage of their victims' relative ignorance of this wine market sector.
As with any investment, thorough research is essential to making an informed decision. Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between 30 and 50 degrees latitude north and south of the equator.
The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south ,  and the northernmost are in Flen , Sweden , just north of the 59th parallel north.
The UK was the world's largest importer of wine in Wine-consumption data from a list of countries by alcohol consumption measured in liters of pure ethyl alcohol consumed per capita in a given year, according to the most recent data from the World Health Organization.
The methodology includes persons 15 years of age or older. Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of cuisines, from the simple and traditional stews to the most sophisticated and complex haute cuisines.
Wine is often served with dinner. Sweet dessert wines may be served with the dessert course. In fine restaurants in Western countries, wine typically accompanies dinner.
At a restaurant, patrons are helped to make good food-wine pairings by the restaurant's sommelier or wine waiter. Individuals dining at home may use wine guides to help make food—wine pairings.
Wine is also drunk without the accompaniment of a meal in wine bars or with a selection of cheeses at a wine and cheese party.
Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage, but as a flavor agent, primarily in stocks and braising , since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes.
The use of wine in ancient Near Eastern and Ancient Egyptian religious ceremonies was common. Libations often included wine, and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state.
Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat.
On Pesach Passover during the Seder, it is a Rabbinic obligation of adults to drink four cups of wine. And due to the danger, those who live in a place where blood libels occur are halachically exempted from using red wine, lest it be seized as "evidence" against them.
In Christianity , wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist , which originates in the Gospel account of the Last Supper Gospel of Luke While some Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for the validity of the sacrament , many Protestants also allow or require pasteurized grape juice as a substitute.
Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice.
Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice, and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States, as well as to other countries to a lesser degree.
Alcoholic beverages, including wine, are forbidden under most interpretations of Islamic law. Iran had previously had a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in Some Alevi sects—one of the two main branches of Islam in Turkey the other being Sunni Islam —use wine in their religious services.
Certain exceptions to the ban on alcohol apply. Alcohol derived from a source other than the grape or its byproducts and the date  is allowed in "very small quantities" loosely defined as a quantity that does not cause intoxication under the Sunni Hanafi madhab , for specific purposes such as medicines , where the goal is not intoxication.
However, modern Hanafi scholars regard alcohol consumption as totally forbidden. Wine contains ethyl alcohol , the same chemical that is present in beer and distilled spirits and as such, wine consumption has short-term psychological and physiological effects on the user.
Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on a person. The effects of alcohol depend on the amount an individual has drunk, the percentage of alcohol in the wine and the timespan that the consumption took place, the amount of food eaten and whether an individual has taken other prescription, over-the-counter or street drugs , among other factors.
Drinking enough to cause a blood alcohol concentration BAC of 0. A BAC of 0. A BAC from 0. As with all alcoholic beverages, drinking while driving , operating an aircraft or heavy machinery increases the risk of an accident; many countries have penalties against drunk driving.
Wines can trigger the positive emotions in a short period of time, such as relaxed and comfortable. The context and quality of wine can affect the mood and emotions, too.
The main active ingredient of wine is alcohol, and therefore, the health effects of alcohol apply to wine. A systematic review and meta-analysis found that moderate ethanol consumption brought no mortality benefit compared with lifetime abstention from ethanol consumption.
Drinking more than this amount actually increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure , atrial fibrillation , and stroke.
Alcoholism is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause liver cirrhosis and alcoholism.
Consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation. Population studies exhibit a J-curve correlation between wine consumption and rates of heart disease: Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages is correlated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular causes,  although the association is stronger for wine.
Additionally, some studies have found a greater correlation of health benefits with red than white wine, though other studies have found no difference.
Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine, and these could be protective against cardiovascular disease.
Although red wine contains the chemical resveratrol and there is tentative evidence it may improve heart health, the evidence is unclear for those at high risk as of [update].
White wine generally contains lower levels of the chemical as it has minimal contact with grape skins during this process.
Incidents of fraud, such as mislabeling the origin or quality of wines, have resulted in regulations on labeling. Although alternative closures are less expensive and prevent cork taint , they have been blamed for such problems as excessive reduction.
Some wines are packaged in thick plastic bags within corrugated fiberboard boxes, and are called " box wines ", or "cask wine".
Tucked inside the package is a tap affixed to the bag in box , or bladder, that is later extended by the consumer for serving the contents.
Box wine can stay acceptably fresh for up to a month after opening because the bladder collapses as wine is dispensed, limiting contact with air and, thus, slowing the rate of oxidation.
In contrast, bottled wine oxidizes more rapidly after opening because of the increasing ratio of air to wine as the contents are dispensed; it can degrade considerably in a few days.
Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. The glass used to make bottles is a nontoxic, naturally occurring substance that is completely recyclable, whereas the plastics used for box-wine containers are typically much less environmentally friendly.
However, wine-bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations. A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine, being lighter in package weight, has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution; however, box-wine plastics, even though possibly recyclable, can be more labor-intensive and therefore expensive to process than glass bottles.
In addition, while a wine box is recyclable, its plastic bladder most likely is not. Some wine is sold in stainless steel kegs and is referred to as wine on tap.
Wine cellars , or wine rooms, if they are above-ground, are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. Fine restaurants and some private homes have wine cellars.
In an active wine cellar, temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate-control system. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled, and so must be carefully located.
Because wine is a natural, perishable food product, all types—including red, white, sparkling, and fortified—can spoil when exposed to heat, light, vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity.
When properly stored, wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma, flavor, and complexity as they age.
Wine refrigerators offer a smaller alternative to wine cellars and are available in capacities ranging from small, bottle units to furniture-quality pieces that can contain bottles.
Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging, but rather serve to chill wine to the proper temperature for drinking.
Lower humidity levels can dry out corks over time, allowing oxygen to enter the bottle, which reduces the wine's quality through oxidation.
Certain shapes of bottle may allow the cork to be pushed out by the ice, but if the bottle is frozen on its side, the wine in the narrower neck will invariably freeze first, preventing this.
There are a large number of occupations and professions that are part of the wine industry, ranging from the individuals who grow the grapes, prepare the wine, bottle it, sell it, assess it, market it and finally make recommendations to clients and serve the wine.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the beverage. For other uses, see Wine disambiguation.
For a topical guide to this subject, see Outline of wine. Glasses of red wine and white wine. List of grape varieties. Aging of wine , Investment wine , and Storage of wine.
List of wine-producing countries and List of wine-producing regions. Christian views on alcohol and Alcohol in the Bible. Health effects of wine.
Sugar and alcohol content can vary. Short-term effects of alcohol. Long-term effects of alcohol consumption. List of food contamination incidents.
Cork material , Closure bottle , Alternative wine closure , Wine bottle , Box wine , and Screw cap wine. The Story of Wine.
Cultures of The World Georgia. Retrieved 24 May University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
Archaeological Institute of America. From Environmental to Industrial Sustainability. Alcohol in World History. Retrieved on 3 January American Institute for Cancer Research.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The project originated in discussions on Usenet in comp. The project has proven time-consuming and difficult for the developers, mostly because of incomplete and incorrect documentation of the Windows API.
While Microsoft extensively documents most Win32 functions , some areas such as file formats and protocols have no publicly available specification from Microsoft, and Windows also includes undocumented low-level functions, undocumented behavior and obscure bugs that Wine must duplicate precisely in order to allow some applications to work properly.
The Wine project originally released Wine under the same MIT License as the X Window System, but owing to concern about proprietary versions of Wine not contributing their changes back to the core project,  work as of March has used the LGPL for its licensing.
Wine officially entered beta with version 0. CrossOver includes some application-specific tweaks not considered suitable for the WineHQ [ non sequitur ] version, as well as some additional proprietary components.
The involvement of Corel for a time assisted the project, chiefly by employing Julliard and others to work on it. Corel later cancelled all Linux-related projects after Microsoft made major investments in Corel, stopping their Wine effort.
Other corporate sponsors include Google , which hired CodeWeavers to fix Wine so Picasa ran well enough to be ported directly to Linux using the same binary as on Windows; Google later paid for improvements to Wine's support for Adobe Photoshop CS2.
Wine is also a regular beneficiary of Google's Summer of Code program. The goal of Wine is to implement the Windows APIs fully or partially that are required by programs that the users of Wine wish to run on top of a Unix-like system.
DirectX is a collection of APIs for rendering, audio and input. While most office software does not make use of these, computer games do.
As of , Wine contains a DirectX 9. After some modification to Wine, it is now possible to use Direct3D 9 games without the requirement to translate Direct3D calls into OpenGL calls, thus gaining a huge performance boost.
On December 12, , Phoronix mentioned that a recent revision of Wine could run the video game Overwatch. The functions comprising the Linux API are simple, with few parameters and few places where there are multiple ways to perform the same operation.
Win32 provides very comprehensive interfaces with many parameters, often with three or four ways of doing the same thing, without the programmer actually knowing the costs, as documentation of the involved system calls is not available outside Microsoft.
Additionally Win32 mixes low-level and high-level functions together. These contain a huge number of wrapper sub-routines for the system calls of the kernel, the NTOS kernel-mode program ntoskrnl.
Only programmers at Microsoft write to the system-call layer, as documentation is not publicly available.
The published user-mode interfaces all belong to operating system personalities that are implemented using subsystems that run on top of the NTOS layers.
As a result, a programmer never knows the cost of sub-routine. But Windows also includes a number of programming interfaces which are implemented as services that run as separate processes.
Applications communicate with user-mode services through RPCs. Unlike Linux, Windows is case insensitive, meaning it does not generally distinguish between upper- and lowercase.
Wine implements the Windows application binary interface ABI entirely in user space , rather than as a kernel module.
Services normally provided by the kernel in Windows  are provided by a daemon known as the wineserver, whose task is to implement basic Windows functionality, as well as integration with the X Window System , and translation of signals into native Windows exceptions.
Although Wine implements some aspects of the Windows kernel , it is not possible to use native Windows drivers with it, due to Wine's underlying architecture.
This prevents certain applications and games from working, for example those using StarForce copy-protection which requires virtual device drivers to be installed.
Wine is usually invoked from the command-line interpreter: There is the utility winecfg that starts a graphical user interface with controls for adjusting basic options.
Winecfg makes configuring Wine easier by making it unnecessary to edit the registry directly, although, if needed, this can be done with the included registry editor similar to Windows regedit.
Some applications require more tweaking than simply installing the application in order to work properly, such as manually configuring Wine to use certain Windows DLLs.
The Wine project does not integrate such workarounds into the Wine codebase, instead preferring to focus solely on improving Wine's implementation of the Windows API.
While this approach focuses Wine development on long-term compatibility, it makes it difficult for users to run applications that require workarounds.
Consequently, many third-party applications have been created to ease the use of those applications that don't work out of the box within Wine itself.
The Wine wiki maintains a page of current and obsolete third-party applications. The developers of the Direct3D portions of Wine have continued to implement new features such as pixel shaders to increase game support.
Wine also includes its own open-source implementations of several Windows programs, such as notepad , wordpad , control , iexplore , and explorer.
Wine ensures good backward compatibility with legacy Windows applications, including those written for Windows 3. Backward compatibility in Wine is superior to that of Windows, as newer versions of Windows can force users to upgrade legacy Windows applications.
In many cases, Wine can offer better legacy support than newer versions of Windows with "Compatibility Mode".
Wine can run bit Windows programs on a bit operating system, which uses an x bit CPU. Wine partially supports Windows console applications , and the user can choose which backend to use to manage the console choices include  raw streams, curses , and user When using the raw streams or curses backends, Windows applications will run in a Unix terminal.
Preliminary support for bit Windows applications was added to Wine 1. However, as almost all Windows applications are currently [update] available in bit versions, and the bit version of Wine can run on bit platforms, this is seen as a non-issue.
Wine will not run Windows CE programs. Internet Explorer can be installed directly on Wine. However, it is not recommended to do so, since there is an alternative with Wine and at least in the past it crashed or does not work well on recent versions of Wine which had poor support for Internet Explorer.
Internet Explorer 5 can be installed on Wine 1. However, It is not compatible with the latest versions of Wine,  and the development of IEs4Linux is inactive.
The core Wine development aims at a correct implementation of the Windows API as a whole and has sometimes lagged in some areas of compatibility with certain applications.
Direct3D, for example, remained unimplemented until ,  although newer releases have had an increasingly complete implementation. CodeWeavers markets CrossOver specifically for running Microsoft Office and other major Windows applications, including some games.
CrossOver Games was optimized for running Windows video games. Unlike CrossOver, it didn't focus on providing the most stable version of Wine.
Instead, experimental features are provided to support newer games. TransGaming Technologies produced the proprietary Cedega software.
Instead of being an end-user product, Cider like Winelib is a wrapper allowing developers to adapt their games to run natively on Intel Mac without any changes in source code.
The Russian company Etersoft has been developing a proprietary version of Wine since Enterprise by 1C Company.
All patches for x86 version were merged back into the main branch of Wine in Development on the PPC version was abandoned.
The project provides an extensive set of patches against the upstream Wine project,  some of which occasionally get approved and added to upstream Wine.
On 21 August , Valve announced a new variation of Wine, named Proton, designed to integrate with the Linux version of the company's Steam software including Steam installations built into their Linux-based SteamOS operating system and Steam Machine computers.
Valve had already been collaborating with Codeweavers since to develop improvements to Wine gaming performance, some of which have already been merged to the upstream Wine project.
Proton is fully open-source and available via GitHub. The Wine project has received a number of technical and philosophical complaints and concerns over the years.
Because of Wine's ability to run Windows binary code, concerns have been raised over native Windows viruses and malware affecting Unix-like operating systems.
For this reason the developers of Wine recommend never running it as the superuser. Another security concern is when the implemented specifications are ill-designed and allow for security compromise.
Because Wine implements these specs, it will also implement any security vulnerabilities they contain. A common concern about Wine is that its existence means that vendors are less likely to write native Linux, macOS, and BSD applications.
No, this is not an error. The Wine project itself responds to these complaints on one of its wiki pages:. For most people there remain a handful of programs locking them in to Windows.
It's obvious there will never be a Microsoft Office ported to Linux, however older versions of programs like TurboTax won't be ported either.
Similarly, there are tens of thousands of games and internal corporate applications which will never be ported. If you want to use Linux and rely on any legacy Windows application, something like Wine is essential Wine makes Linux more useful and allows for millions of users to switch who couldn't otherwise.
This greatly raises Linux marketshare, drawing more commercial and community developers to Linux. Also, the Wine Wiki page claims that Wine can help break the chicken-and-egg problem for Linux on the desktop: This brings us to the chicken and egg issue of Linux on the desktop.
Until Linux can provide equivalents for the above applications, its market share on the desktop will stagnate. But until the market share of Linux on the desktop rises, no vendor will develop applications for Linux.
How does one break this vicious circle? Again, Wine can provide an answer.Commercial use of the term Meritage is allowed only via licensing agreements with the Meritage Association. Retrieved 31 Iphone apps runterladen Have a look at our Application Database to get an idea on what can be spiele darmstadt 98 casino blocker Wine. Wine skapar en Windows-lik miljö för programmet och startar en Wine-serversom bland annat sköter kommunikation mellan Windows-processer. Archaeological Institute of America. However, as almost all Windows applications are currently [update] available in bit versions, and isoftbet online casino bit version of Wine can run on bit platforms, this is seen as a non-issue. Calcium sulphate in such quantity that the content of soluble sulphates in the finished wine shall not exceed 0. Archived Beste Spielothek in Falkenhagen finden the original on 26 December Retrieved 24 May Drink portal Beer portal Wine portal Eu casino no deposit portal. An Encyclopaedia of the Law of Judaism. Sugar and alcohol content can vary. Find more about Wine at Wikipedia's sister projects.
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